The Cheeta II was equipped for FM broadcasting, so it was fitted with the 10 kW transmitter from the Mi Amigo, feeding a makeshift antenna. This was replaced by a twin-mast T-antenna. However, in October 1987 a massive storm hit southern England, causing deaths and severe damage.  Presenters Tony Blackburn, Roger Gale, Mike Allen, Ray Teret, Roger Day, Simon Dee, Tony Prince, Spangles Muldoon, Keith Skues, Johnnie Walker, Robbie Dale, Dave Lee Travis, Tommy Vance, Tom Edwards, Paul Noble, Bob Stewart and Andy Archer became well known. Since 1991, the Ross Revenge has been maintained by enthusiasts called the Radio Caroline Support Group, originally the Ross Revenge Support Group. When Marine &c. Broadcasting Offences Act become law on 14 August 1967, Radio Caroline was renamed Radio Caroline International. Radio Caroline South's 259 metres signal was now near those of Radio London on 266m (1133 kHz) and the BBC's Light Programme on 247m (1214 kHz). My least favourite period of Radio Caroline was the 558 CHR format, when (in my opinion) Caroline went against all her principles and sold-out to the masses. Without serious competition, Radio Caroline gained a regular daytime audience of some 7 million.. By championing bands ignored by the establishment, the founder of Radio Caroline paved the way for the pirate DJs of soul, acid house and grime Radio Caroline founder dies aged 79 On 12 June 2006, the station bought an EPG slot on Sky channel 0199.  It had an antenna system radiating from a 300-foot (91 m) high mast, the tallest on any ship in the world. The transmitter was initially too powerful for the antenna insulators. DJs could choose ordering of oldies – all current pop hits in strict rotation. In July Caroline moved to the adjacent channel, 962 kHz (312 metres but still called 319) and reception in the UK improved. , He was involved in popular music in other ways. Picture: ARCHANT LIBRARY - Credit: dave kindred O'Rahilly wanted Radio Caroline to become an oldies station. Daytime programming was leased to a community radio service called Puketapu Radio on 756 kHz. Here they produced programmes for Dutch-speaking holidaymakers, mostly Europop, Top 40, MOR and Dutch language popular music presented by Belgian, Dutch and occasionally English DJs with frequent commercials. In an earlier House of Commons debate (in June 1966), the government had claimed that the pirate ships were a danger because of radio frequency interference to emergency shipping channels, and to overseas radio stations and the pirates were paying no royalties to artists, composers or record companies. News at peak hours: 7, 8, 9 am, 1 pm; 5, 6, 7 pm, with headlines at 6:30 am, 7:30 am and 8:30 am.  During this period each night transmission of Radio Caroline started with Calling Occupants of Interplanetary Craft by the progressive Rock Band Klaatu, issued in 1976 on their album 3:47 E.S.T. MV Ross Revenge weathered the storm in the North Sea. . Radio Caroline had greater night-time interference, and it was decided to move Caroline to a new frequency.  Dale was one of the DJs on Radio Caroline on 14 August 1967 with Johnnie Walker, when the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act came into effect. Some DJs from the USA and Commonwealth countries, such as Graham Webb, Emperor Rosko, Steve Young, Keith Hampshire, Colin Nicol and Norman St John, were also heard. In 1990 the UK government amended the 1967 anti-offshore law to allow the boarding and silencing of stations in international waters if their signals could be received in the UK, even if their vessels were foreign-registered and operated. That autumn various tests, consisting of continuous music, were made on 259 metres. 50 kW (second 10 kW transmitter later added). To allow Radio Mi Amigo to continue broadcasting by day, the engineering work for Caroline's move had to be carried out over six nights, after the 50 kW transmitter was switched off.  Surveys in 2008 and 2010 showed a small percentage listened via Sky, and that satellite listening had dropped by 9% since 2008, while online listening had increased by around 40%. Some of these 28-day Restricted Service Licence (RSL) broadcasts took place from the Ross Revenge during the 1990s, with the ship anchored off Clacton, in London's Canary Wharf, Southend Pier and off the Isle of Sheppey in Kent. , From 31 March to 27 April 2014, a Caroline North tribute station, based on the Planet Lightship berthed in the Albert Dock complex on Liverpool's waterfront, broadcast locally on 87.7FM and on the internet. Radio Seagull became Radio Caroline on 23 February 1974, retaining the album format.  On a fund-raising trip to the U.S., O'Rahilly reportedly saw a Life magazine photograph of Kennedy and his children in the Oval Office that served as the inspiration for the name "Caroline Radio". Rough weather sometimes prevented tapes from arriving and old programmes had to be repeated. During 2013, a survey showed a continued move from satellite reception and growth in internet listening. Lord Annan, author of the 1977 Report of the Committee on the Future of Broadcasting, spoke in defence of Radio Caroline in the House of Lords at report stage on the Broadcasting Act 1990, saying "Why break a butterfly upon the wheel? For the first years, advertising on the station was in demand. He was also heard on BBC Radio Merseyside. The final song was Pilot of the Airwaves by Charlie Dore.. Today the paintwork is peeling, the … . On 18 August, a British government chartered ship pulled up alongside the Ross Revenge and asked to board to "discuss the future" of the Ross Revenge and the stations operating from it. European medium wave channels had been reallocated to multiples of nine. Pirate radio Dale was chief DJ on the offshore pirate radio ship Radio Caroline. Radio Caroline South = 10kW (later 50 kW). , In January 2002, a Dutch Caroline fan called Sietse Brouwer launched a Netherlands-based Dutch Radio Caroline in Harlingen, broadcasting on the northern Netherlands cable networks and largely independent of UK Caroline. These stories continued and included co-operation by a former member of the Beatles and a sign-on date of 1 July; the station failed to appear. Catch up on your favourite BBC radio show from your favourite DJ right here, whenever you like. After a short test on 773 kHz in late 1975, in May 1976, Radio Caroline began a daytime service on 1562 kHz (192 m) using a 10 kW transmitter, while its overnight service continued to share the 50 kW transmitter with Radio Mi Amigo's daytime programming on 1187 kHz (253 metres, announced as 259). Radio Caroline began to broadcast from the ship on 19 August 1983, with unwanted mechanical sounds on speech. O'Rahilly promised financial backing if van Dam could return the ship to broadcasting condition. Broadcasting was in Dutch and English by day and in English at night, although for the first few months broadcasting finished at 10 p.m. On 19 January 1979, the ageing ship took in water and a lifeboat was called to rescue the crew members.  O'Rahilly named the station after Caroline Kennedy, daughter of U.S. president John F.  The generator was left running but the pumps could not manage and the vessel sank 10 minutes later. They feature the Caroline Roadshow, a rock event linked to Radio Caroline. One of Radio Caroline's directors, Major Oliver Smedley, formerly of Radio Atlanta, entered a partnership with Radio City's owner, pop group manager Reginald Calvert and installed a more powerful transmitter on the fort. Some DJs were embarrassed but some were fascinated by the challenge of an abstract concept.  Unlicensed by any government for most of its early life, it was a pirate radio station that never became illegal as such due to operating outside any national jurisdiction, although after the Marine Offences Act (1967) it became illegal for a British subject to associate with it. However, according to Gerry Bishop's book Offshore Radio this transmitter was antiquated and failed to work.  Dedicated apps for listening via Apple IOS and Android devices are also available. The 10 kW transmitters could run on the Henschel generator beside the two main MAN units and also a Cummins unit on the aft deck behind the wheelhouse.. Tony Prince pays his respect to RONAN O’RAHILLY, Founder of Radio Caroline who sadly passed away today the 20th of april 2020. Don was Senior DJ on Caroline North from the introduction of the Marine Offences Act until the station's closure when he joined Manx Radio. Her story illustrates how uniquely dangerous government regards an independent voice transmitted over unrestricted airwaves and to what ends it will go to silence it.". From 2007, the ship was docked at Tilbury, where a volunteer crew repaired and maintained it. Radio Caroline North subsequently moved to 257m (1169 kHz) but also called it 259. In 1972, MV Mi Amigo was bought for her scrap value at auction by enthusiast Gerard van Dam, who intended to use her as a free radio museum. (i) 963 kHz : unformatted free-choice album format, with news. Radio Caroline's founder, Ronan O'Rahilly, was diagnosed with vascular dementia in 2013; his death aged 79 on 20 April 2020 was announced by Radio Caroline. However, the storm had weakened the mast, which collapsed in another storm later. Since September 2015, Radio Caroline has been broadcasting 'live' for one weekend each month as "Radio Caroline North" (with original DJs and a mixed sixties, seventies and eighties music content and jingles) from its former home the MV Ross Revenge on the Blackwater Estuary in Essex, via Manx Radio's 1368 kHz 20 kW transmitter on the Isle of Man. , The Offshore Radio Revolution in Britain 1964 - 2004, Privately Owned Holiday Apartments in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robbie_Dale&oldid=959154401, People from Littleborough, Greater Manchester, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 May 2020, at 11:34. In late 1972, Radio Caroline had money problems. The Mi Amigo "Top 50" tapes were flown over by helicopter to get them on board more quickly.  Radio Caroline returned to the air on 15 April 1979. Broadcasting from various offshore locations to Western Europe, Status unclear and mainly operated by supporters, Radio Atlantis 1973 and Radio Mi-Amigo 1974–1978, Geographic areas bordering upon North Sea, 963 kHz (wavelength announced as "319" metres) later moving to 819 kHz with additional transmitter in 531–594 kHz range (principally 558 kHz). They emailed me back to say they don't give out their studios address on air as they said people would be turning up uninvited hoping to get to meet the presenters and people behind the scenes and this would be unfair to them and their neighbours. The DJs climb off one ship onto the other. Due to generator trouble, the two services could no longer be broadcast simultaneously and Radio Caroline again broadcast at night with both stations using the 50 kW transmitter and Radio Caroline began to receive more mail from the continent. The 208 Top Twenty ran from Autumn 1948 until December 1992 on Radio Luxembourg. Dutch nationals were arrested and returned to the Netherlands, together with most of the broadcasting equipment. The following disc-jockeys from the sixties have been inducted into The Pirate Radio Hall of Fame. 1980s: 1,575 talking about this. On 4 May 2015, Radio Caroline started a 24-hour "Flashback" webstream carrying "oldies" music and jingles. Spectrum threatened to sue the Radio Authority, which then allowed Spectrum to temporarily broadcast on 990 kHz alongside 558 kHz. The first record played was Fool (If You Think It's Over), by Chris Rea, dedicated to the British Home Office. At the same time, Allan Crawford's Project Atlanta was equipping the MV Mi Amigo at Greenore, where the two competed to be the first on air. It commemorated the 40th anniversary of Radio Caroline and promoted the station's legal internet and satellite programmes. The Dutch claimed the ship's Panamanian registration had lapsed in 1987 and it was not under legal protection from any country and that its transmissions breached international regulations which since 1982 had prohibited broadcasting from outside national territories. Radio Caroline North = 10kW (later 20kW). Tenders and boat owners were warned, and some were prosecuted for ferrying staff and provisions to the ship. Beginning in 1975, the cassettes were transported from Playa d'Aro on the Europa Bus service, which carried people from Amsterdam to Madrid at low prices. In May 2017, Ofcom awarded the station a community licence to broadcast to Suffolk and north Essex on 648 kHz with a power of 1 kW. Also some pages about individual DJ's will have current comments from them about their experience on Radio Caroline North. Another Belgian station, Radio Mi Amigo International, launched on 1 January 1974; it was run by Belgian businessman and Suzy Waffles owner Sylvain Tack. " In a 1995 article for the pressure group Charter88, Steve McGann commented: "Whether Caroline was right to maintain her defiance for so many years is irrelevant. I'm editing airchecks as fast as I can plus searching for more to give a better idea of the overall sound of Radio Caroline North. Presentations were made to US advertising agencies. On Monday August 14th 1967, Radio Caroline continued broadcasting to the UK and Europe, even though the British Government had brought in a bill to end "Pirate Radio".  During summer 1973, it broadcast separate stations in English and Dutch simultaneously, on 389 m / 773 kHz and 252 m (announced as 259) / 1187 kHz. (Gordon): Well, we're sorry to tell you that due to the severe weather conditions and the fact that we are shipping quite a lot of water, we are closing down, and the crew are at this stage leaving the ship. Following the election, RNI resumed its original name but jamming continued under the newly-elected Conservative government. There are a number of other names that we would like to add but have insufficient details. The Ross Revenge was larger than Mi Amigo and with more elaborate transmitting equipment: in 1983, two 5 kW RCA transmitters and a RCA 50 kW unit. The two stations were able to cover most of the British Isles. Since Radio Caroline could not find enough advertising, it shared its nominal 259-metre wavelength (actually 1187 kHz or 253 metres) with Dutch-language pop stations. During the 70’s and 80’s the was the main personality of an underground radio channel that was the first ever station owned by a black person. He was opposed by some DJs and crew who had worked on the Mi Amigo and the album format stayed along with presenters such as Andy Archer, Samantha Dubois, Grant Benson, Robin Ross and Simon Barrett. News stories appeared in Europe announcing the start of Caroline Television from two Super Constellation aircraft using Stratovision technology. At midnight, Caroline DJ's Johnnie Walker and Robbie Dale, along with newsreader … The new station introduced British audiences to slick American-style top 40 radio with electronic jingles produced by Dallas-based PAMS, and was an immediate success. The ship has working radio studios, from which both Caroline and BBC Essex have broadcast. The only singer to stay overnight, she helped present programmes, make jingles, and close the station at night.. In June 1990, Spectrum Radio, a new multi-ethnic community radio station in London, was officially allocated 558 kHz. Currently they also broadcast on DAB radio in certain areas of the UK: these services are part of the Ofcom small-scale DAB+ trials. He was given the nickname "The Admiral" by Dave Lee Travis because he reportedly liked the boat to be "shipshape"; he sometimes wore an admiral's uniform while doing his show. DJ Jack Spector, of the WMCA "Good Guys" in New York, regularly recorded for Radio Caroline. Radio Caroline, once home to DJs such as Tony blackburn, pictured here on board the Mi Amigo in 1965, is returning to the airwaves. The station returned at 8 pm and continued until after midnight to avoid competition with popular television programmes. DJs ready to rock again at stone unveiling for Radio Caroline at Felixstowe this weekend Legendary disc jockey Emperor Rosko – one of the best known voices on radio of the 1960s and 70s – will be at … Officially, Radio Caroline was managed from offices in North America, with advertising from the US and Canada. The Dutch offshore station Radio Veronica was on 1562 kHz and Radio Atlanta broadcast on 1493 kHz. Robbie moved from Dublin to Lanzarote (Canary Islands) in 1989, where he now operates a holiday apartment complex. This request, and one to stop transmissions on 819 kHz, was refused. Now Playing: Radio airplay monitoring powered by ACRCloud. The Dutch Radio Caroline then changed its name to Radio Waddenzee (nl) for daytime Dutch and German language, and Radio Seagull for nighttime English language broadcasts, and now broadcasts on 1602 kHz every day and on the internet, presenting a progressive rock format. Its medium wave transmission was jammed by the UK authorities and on 13 June, RNI changed its name to Radio Caroline International with co-operation from Ronan O'Rahilly. On 1 October 1989, Radio Caroline restarted broadcasting from the Ross Revenge using makeshift equipment and low power, to retain the 558 kHz frequency. Former Radio Caroline DJ Tony Blackburn was the first presenter on air. Radio Caroline DJ at work (Photo by Associated Newspapers / Rex Features) Smedley's trial opened on 11 October at Chemlsford Assizes, where the jury acquitted him.. Radio Caroline DJ Robbie Dale. The four-week event was funded through on-air local business commercials.  The remaining 5 kW transmitter was later converted for short wave use. Radio Caroline's first musical theme was Jimmy McGriff's "Round Midnight", a jazz standard co-composed by Thelonious Monk. These broadcasts took place between 1970 and 1973.. During mid-August 1989, authorities in several European countries carried out co-ordinated raids on houses, recording studios and offices believed to be used by Caroline. For several months only one transmitter could be used, leading to the loss of the income-generating Radio Monique, although a substitute Dutch daytime service, Radio 558 (later Radio 819), was eventually established. Engineer Peter Chicago had hidden transmitter parts during the raid and retuned one 5 kW transmitter, previously used on short-wave, to 558 kHz. There were also plenty of DJs that visited the Radio Caroline from the USA and overseas, including Emperor Rosko, Graham Webb, Keith Hampshire, and Colin Nicol. , On 3 March 1968, the radio ships Mi Amigo and Caroline, were boarded and seized before the day's broadcasting began. Following negotiations with the service provider, satellite transmissions ended at midnight on 30 September 2013. On 28 December, unpaid crew cut the Mi Amigo's generator fuel line and departed. This two-day broadcast featured Phil Mitchell, Paul Dennis, Colin Lamb, John Patrick, Barry James, Steve Cisco and Clive Boutell. , When the US-backed Radio London arrived off the coast of England, there was an unsuccessful attempt to merge its sales operation with that of Caroline before Radio London started transmissions. Later in 1973, when the contract with Radio Caroline ended, the crew of Radio Atlantis moved to their own ship, the MV Jeanine.. Radio Caroline was the springboard for most of the UK's best known radio DJs. Although most broadcasting staff left at that time, some remained for a year as caretakers while funding and equipment were sought. [clarification needed]. Caroline returned to the air using a makeshift aerial with a less powerful signal. Caroline caused more interference to Spectrum than vice versa. Encouraged by Scandinavian and Dutch radio pirates, in February 1964 O'Rahilly obtained the 702-ton former Danish passenger ferry Fredericia, which was converted into a radio ship at the Irish port of Greenore, owned by O'Rahilly's father. In December 2010, Chatham and Aylesford MP Tracey Crouch presented an Early Day Motion to the House of Commons calling for Ofcom to allow Radio Caroline to broadcast as a licensed medium wave station to its "traditional heartland of the south east". Throughout most of the 1970s, Radio Caroline could be heard only at night, calling itself "Europe's first and only album station". Simon Dee was later joined by Tony Blackburn, Tony Prince, Dave Lee Travis and Johnnie Walker. Various: broadly according to era and frequency: 1960s : mainstream pop. The station was opened by DJ Tom Anderson, who had said "goodbye" from the sinking Mi Amigo in 1980.. Bubblegum Lemonade released "Caroline's Radio" in 2010 which was a nostalgic look back at listening to Radio Caroline.  It was not until RNI returned to its original anchorage off the Netherlands that the jamming ceased. The featured djs include Rob Eden and Harvey the Rabbit and they are assisted by lots of very heavy metal rock music and, of course, Santa Claus. (Gordon): For the moment from all of us, goodbye and God bless. DJs choose records and reply to fan letters. On Saturday, 28 March, it began regular broadcasting at noon on 1520 kHz (announced as 199 metres) with the opening conducted by Simon Dee. In 1976, The Loving Awareness Band released their only album, Loving Awareness on More Love Records (ML001), a label set up by O'Rahilly. Dale was one of the DJs on Radio Caroline on 14 August 1967 with Johnnie Walker, when the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act came into effect. The medium wave frequency was 235 metres (1278 kHz) and programmes were sent through ISDN landline to Maidstone and via the internet and broadcast on satellite. It left Spain, with an incomplete studio, to avoid legal entanglements. Three British nationals, a Dutchman and their canary (named Wilson after the former Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson) were rescued. At times, a 10 kW transmitter was used to save fuel and relieve the generators. 15 August 1967 following passage of the Marine Offences Act, Broadcasting from various locations offshore to Western Europe. Caroline Continues - August 1967 Johnnie Walker from 9 pm to Midnight And the Both Johnnie and Robbie Dale from Midnight to 1:30 am This is the historic night that Radio Caroline alone defied Harold Wilson's Government and continued to broadcast after midnight once … Ray Clark) and Rob Charles. Music plays as we are given a little tour of the ship.  At its peak, the station had 23 million listeners.  The album was reissued on CD on Ross Records, c.1992, and in a "30th Anniversary Edition" with bonus material on SMC Records in 2005. , On 20 June 1966, Smedley boarded the Shivering Sands Fort with 10 workmen to repossess a transmitter that he had supplied, but had not been paid for. Syndicated shows from the US and recorded religious programmes were also broadcast. In the evenings on 963, some alternative music programmes were tried, including the reggae "Jamming 963", and in 1986 and early 1987, a progressive and indie rock programme called Caroline Overdrive hosted by Tom Anderson, Fergie McNeal, Andy Johnson, Stevie Lane, Mark Matthews, Kevin Turner, Peter Phillips, Mick Williams (a.k.a. Radio Caroline's transmission output was almost 20 kW, achieved by linking two 10 kW Continental Electronics transmitters. The DJs chat, drink cups of tea and look at their records on their way to the Radio Caroline ship. The Move’s “Flowers In The Rain” was the first record played. He intended to starve them out by making it an offence … (Gordon): I think we'll be back in one way or another. On 1 January 2016, a second channel was launched called Caroline Flashback, playing pop music from the late 1950s to the early 1980s. Belgian courts sentenced Tack and some DJs to fines and jail in absentia, although the prison terms were later cancelled. RNI operated on medium wave, short wave and FM. The station tried to obtain a licence from a developing country, hoping it might offer protection from the new provisions in the Broadcasting Act 1990 which came into force on 31 December that year. Dale was chief DJ on the offshore pirate radio ship Radio Caroline. Each of his crew was awarded The Thanks of the Institution on vellum.  This ended on 1 July 2011 after a failure to renegotiate costs with Sky and deciding not to pursue a Freesat EPG slot. The following day James Murphy, an investigator for the UK Office of the Official Solicitor, acting for the Department of Trade and Industry, joined colleagues and counterparts from the Netherlands Radio Regulatory Authority to execute an armed raid on the Ross Revenge in which equipment was damaged or confiscated. A brief name change from Radio North Sea International during the UK General Election campaign, after which the station reverted to its original name. The sound of the very first bell from Radio Caroline in 1964 heralded the start of a completely new type of sound coming out of British transistor radios - the radio jingle.  The Manx parliament, the Tynwald, attempted to exclude the North ship from the legislation, appealing to the European Court on the legality of the act being applied to the Isle of Man. album, and Turnbull and Gallagher joined them on the Stiff's tour, becoming The Blockheads.. DJs Chris Cary, broadcasting as Spangles Muldoon (who was also station manager), Roger 'Twiggy' Day, Andy Archer, Paul Alexander, Steve England, Johnny Jason and Peter Chicago (real name Peter Murtha) manned the station. Finally, Radio Mi Amigo moved to 962 kHz on 1 December. When it was launched with Teddy Johnson as the DJ in 1948, it was about a decade ahead of the BBC, who started Pick of The Pops in 1955, but which didn't begin an actual Top 20 until March, 1958 with David Jacobs. Radio Caroline Ltd. and Caroline Support Group (originally called the Ross Revenge Support Group).  Because of the Christmas holidays, no solicitors were available to issue a writ and the ship lay in Amsterdam harbour until O'Rahilly arranged for it to be towed back to sea. To remain in international waters, the ship moved to a new, less-sheltered anchorage. In late 1977, Radio Caroline began sponsored evangelical programmes, and music programmes began at 9 p.m. On 20 October 1978, technical and financial problems put the Mi Amigo off the air. Radio Caroline broadcasts music from the 1960s to contemporary, with an emphasis on album-oriented rock (AOR) and "new" music from "carefully selected albums". Because of a law that allows pirates in distress to come ashore without arrest, the running aground had no consequences for the crew. In March 1964, The Fortunes recorded Caroline, which became the station's theme. Broadcasters included Tony Christian, Pawl "Hound Dog" Shanley, Dave Fox, Simon West, Dale Richardson and Peter D.. Six weeks later, the BBC introduced its new national pop station Radio 1, modelled largely on the successful offshore station Radio London, and employed many of the ex-pirate DJs. The Radio Caroline DJs, including David Lee Travis and Tony Blackburn, were photographed at Walton police station in Essex after their ship ran aground in 1966. Having to manoeuvre the lifeboat alongside the stricken vessel 13 times in high seas and a north-easterly gale earned Coxswain Charles Bowry an RNLI Silver Medal. The tapes were picked up in Belgium at a bus stop, taken to a small sports plane and dropped in the sea close to the radio ship. From December 1984 the Ross Revenge broadcast Radio Monique, recorded and live Dutch-language programmes of a Dutch music radio production company using the 50 kW transmitter during daytime. To accommodate the second aerial, a second short mast, just in front of the bridge, was employed as the other end of the aerial fixed to the main mast. Smedley later withdrew from the deal. Robbie Dale (real name Robbie Robinson) 'The Admiral' was born in Littleborough, Lancashire, England on 21 April 1940. In October 1965, negotiations began for Radio Caroline to take over Radio City, which broadcast from Shivering Sands Army Fort, a Second World War marine fort off the Kent coast. The Fredericia was renamed MV Caroline and anchored off Felixstowe, Suffolk, where it began test transmissions on Friday, 27 March 1964. When Radio Monique hired the main transmitter, spare parts were taken from a fourth transmitter to convert the 5 kW into a 10 kW unit, the RCA 5 and 10 kW transmitters having similar designs. That this House expresses its disappointment that, having pioneered commercial radio in the UK and for the past decade being a fully licensed broadcaster, Radio Caroline, a cornerstone of British radio history, has been denied by OFCOM the opportunity to secure a medium wave frequency from which to broadcast; regrets that as a result its devoted listeners are confined to listening to Radio Caroline via the internet and unable to enjoy its musical offerings in transit; and calls on OFCOM to exhaust all avenues in making the provisions available for Radio Caroline to celebrate its 50th birthday in 2014 by broadcasting on a medium wave frequency which, it appears, is unwanted by both BBC and commercial operators as a broadcast platform.". On 30th Sept 1967, BBC Radio 1 was launched in the UK. They were pop and Europop aimed at the mainstream Dutch audience. The station, based off the Essex coast, was founded in 1964 and launched careers of many well-known DJs. 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